Educational Articles

  • Amitriptyline is used off label and given by mouth to treat behavioral and pain disorders in dogs, cats, and occasionally birds. Common side effects include sedation, dry mouth, constipation, and urinary retention. This medication should not be used in pets sensitive to TCAs, seizures, or pets currently using MOIs or flea collars. If a negative reaction occurs, please call your veterinary office.

  • Amlodipine besylate is a calcium channel blocking agent used to treat high blood pressure in cats. This medication has also been used to decrease blood pressure in dogs with chronic kidney disease.

  • Ammonium chloride is used off label and given by mouth to treat metabolic alkalosis, struvite stones, and certain toxicities occasionally in small animals and more often in large animals. The most common side effects include pain at the injection site or stomach upset if given by mouth. Do not use in pets with severe liver, kidney, heart, or lung disease. If a negative reaction occurs, please call your veterinary office.

  • Amoxicillin is a synthetic penicillin-type antibiotic effective against a range of infections caused by gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. This medication has been prescribed for your pet to treat a bacterial infection.

  • Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, also known as amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium, is a synthetic penicillin-type antibiotic used to treat infections caused by gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. It is used to treat skin and soft tissue infections, and periodontal disease. Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid comes in tablet form, or may be compounded as a liquid suspension. Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid may cause stomach upset, vomiting and diarrhea. Allergic reactions are rare, but if you observe the following signs contact your veterinarian immediately: irregular breathing, rash, fever, puffiness and swelling around the face.

  • Ampicillin is an antibacterial medication given by injection or by mouth and is used on or off label to treat certain infections. Side effects include allergic reactions or gastrointestinal upset, and neurological signs when given in high doses. Ampicillin use is contraindicated in pets allergic to penicillins and in rabbits, guinea pigs, chinchillas, or hamsters. If a negative reaction occurs, please call your veterinary office.

  • Amyloidosis occurs when proteins called amyloid are deposited outside of cells in various tissues and organs, causing tissue and organ dysfunction.

  • The anal sacs are two small pouches located on either side of the anus at approximately the four o'clock and eight o'clock positions. The walls of the sac produce a foul smelling fluid which is released whenever the dog passes a bowel movement. Bacteria that are normally present in the feces can readily travel up the ducts and enter the sacs resulting in infection. The first sign is often scooting or dragging the rear along the ground. Treatment for impaction involves expressing or emptying the sacs. Antibiotics are often prescribed. Most dogs will require pain relief medications for several days until the swelling and inflammation have subsided. In recurrent or severe cases, surgical removal of the sacs may be necessary.

  • Anal glands are located on either side of the anus and normally produce secretions that are pushed when feces is evacuated from the rectum. An anal sac tumor is a tumor of made up of cells originating from the glands of the anal sac. These tumors can spread and therefore staging is recommended prior to surgery. To diagnose these tumors, a fine needle aspirate can be placed from the outside and into the anal sac to retrieve cells. After surgery, chemotherapy may be considered. Radiation therapy has also been considered as a primary or secondary treatment option.

  • An anaphylactic reaction or anaphylaxis is an immediate hypersensitivity reaction to a foreign substance, especially a foreign protein. Any foreign substance can produce an anaphylactic reaction. Clinical signs are dependent on the route of exposure (mouth, skin, inhalation, injection, etc.), the amount of antigen and the level of the pet's IgE response. An anaphylactic reaction is a medical emergency and immediate treatment is required.